We All Go a Little Mad Sometimes: Examining Evil, Psychosis, and Human Error in Psycho and Other Films

psycho 2Tonight, after a dinner at the Public House, Michael and I headed to Erie’s Warner Theater on 8th street to watch Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho on the big screen while the Erie Chamber Orchestra sat under the screen, playing the score.  The experience was phenomenal.  Watching musicians play the opening score while credits splashed across the screen was so exhilarating I got chills.  Of course, one pivotal musical moment happens during the infamous shower scene, but the music was similarly arresting when the last remains of Marian’s car sink under the swamp, and when “Mrs. Bates” turns around, and we see her “in the flesh.”  (Or, if I may, in the lack of flesh).  In fact, I never realized how beautiful Psycho’s score was until I saw it produced by a live orchestra.

As a sidenote, a theatrical viewing of this film is a must-do if you stumble upon the opportunity.  I was compelled by the scenes people laughed at.  For example, when Norman Bates is trying to hide the evidence by pushing Marian’s car in the swamp, and the top of the car lingers above the surface for a while, a breeze of chuckling wafted through the auditorium.  I had never viewed the scene as funny, and realizing that others saw the humor in the situation had two effects: first, it made me realize a new level of dark humor innate in Hitchcock’s film.  Second, it made me realize that there exist people with darker senses of humor than me, which is comforting for a girl with a proclivity toward the macabre.  Halloween costumes didn’t abound, but they appeared, and in general I got the warm feeling that I was among like-minded friends at this event.

One character struck me, though, and that character was Norman Bates.  Well, of course Norman Bates struck me.  He’s the most intriguing character in the movie.  In fact, Michael asked, jokingly, after the film, if Anthony Perkins received an Oscar for his performance.  You laugh, but I wouldn’t be surprised if actors have received awards for less.  Perkins is brilliant, and especially brilliant at being awkward.  How is it that Norman Bates is so creepy, but, well, in a twisted way, so likeable?

One realization struck me as I was listening to his history unfold, vis a vis the knowing psychiatrist at the film’s conclusion.  And the realization continues to nag me.  Norman Bates may be many things – eccentric, murderous, pathological, awkward, scheming – but Norman Bates is not evil.  This got me thinking.  Horror, as a genre, exposes us to the darkest realm of existence.  That’s part of the reason I’m attracted to it, though I’m not sure what attracts me to the darkness.  But how much of this darkness stems from evil, as opposed to sickness, selfishness, and general human folly?  How many characters in horror novels, shows, and films are truly evil?  How many people are truly evil?

I became fascinated with evil, as its own, distinct concept, this past January, when I read Terry Eagleton’s book, On Evil.  I was browsing the philosophy section of Barnes and Noble when two things struck me.  One, that Terry Eagleton, known in the literature circle as a renowned Marxist critic, had recently published a book.  Two, that he combined philosophy and a critical analysis of famous literary texts to define evil.  I had just finished reading Stephen King’s Pet Sematary, so my mind was already in a dark place, but it was seeking something more academic for a new read.  The book is interesting.  I appreciated the philosophical meanderings more than the literary analysis.  But what stuck with me most were the parameters Terry Eagleton placed on “being evil.”  To be evil is not to commit harmful, even malicious acts.  To be evil is to commit harmful, malicious acts when you have no end in mind and no particular motivation, when you’re committing such acts purely for the pleasure of “watching the world burn,” as Alfred tells Bruce Wayne in The Dark Knight. 

By this rationale, Norman Bates was never evil.  He felt a connection to his mother that was too human to be evil, but too pathological to be healthy, which gave him a motive for killing his mother and her lover.  His own inability to cope with his actions further underscores the fact that he’s not evil.  He’s so unable to cope with his own actions that his personality splits.  Norman Bates killed his mother and her lover because he was possessive, jealous, and probably pathologically connected to his mother – sick, to an extent.  And Norman Bates killed Marian because his previous actions made him very sick.  But Norman Bates was never evil.  And Perkins does an excellent job conveying this.  Perkins plays a character who is eccentric, isolated, even unsettling, but who isn’t insidious.

Let’s take the word “insidious” and run with it, for a minute.  In the film Insidious spirits from the realm of the dead are trying to pass through the barrier between life and death by inhabiting a living person’s body.  Despite the pesky nature of said spirits – nobody likes to be possessed, or to watch their loved ones undergo possession – the spirits are not really insidious, at all.  They have a clear end in mind.  Because they are unhappy and isolated in the world of death, they prey on the bodies of the living, to try to re-enter the world of the living.  In ancient Greek mythology, heroes are sent to the Elysian fields, but even the Elysian fields are subpar compared to life on earth, because the ancient Greeks believed that nothing in death could be as fulfilling as life in the living world.  The spirits in Insidious feel this poignantly, so they very understandably yearn to inhabit living flesh.  Really, there is nothing insidious about Insidious.  But, if the director had chosen the name “sad spirits” for the movie, it may have attracted a much different audience, if it attracted an audience at all.

I think we could deconstruct a lot of horror films and find that there’s no evil at the bottom of the mayhem.  Ironically, I think a prime example of evil is Heath Ledger’s depiction of the Joker in The Dark Knight.  The Joker has no reason for being evil – he makes up a sad backstory about an abusive father, but later laughs at the fact that he made the story up – and he has no aim.  He simply wants to watch people suffer and die, wants to “watch the world burn,” and wants to force Batman to commit evil deeds.

What about exorcist movies?  Do these movies depict pure evil?  When the devil possesses a human being, doesn’t the devil just want to hurt that person, with no end?  I think so, but I’m not sure.  Extra-biblical stories tell us that Lucifer suffered the sin of pride, and wanted to be like God, so he gathered other angels who were tired of serving God and they joined him and provoked a rebellion against God.  But this rebellion has a clear end: Lucifer was not creating mischief for mischief’s sake; he desired power.  And if his evil actions – a rebellion against God – have an end or a purpose, then they are not really evil.  So, the devil possesses one of God’s creatures because the devil is still mad at God for being sent down to hell.  Possession becomes a crime of vengeance and passion, not an act of evil.  Which raises the question: where do we see evil in horror?

Perhaps places can be evil, but people cannot.  The Overlook Hotel drives people crazy and kills people for the sake of killing.  Of course, it was built on an Indian Burial Ground.  And the Micmac burial grounds beyond the Pet Sematary certainly perform evil feats.  I probably need not mention explicitly that the horror genre likes to credit Native American culture with evil, but I had to point it out.  Supernatural entities can be evil, too, at least in the case of Sinister’s Baghuul, who forces children to kill their families ostensibly for the sake of killing, then steals their souls.  The movie provides us with no motivation that he has for doing this.  It seems then, in horror, it may be far easier to find evil places or evil things than evil people.  .

I’m hoping you can answer some questions.  How do you define “evil?”  What infamous horror stars and villains are evil, and which ones are selfish, angry, or some combination of sick and psychotic?  Are there better embodiments of evil than Heath Ledger’s Joker in The Dark Knight?  I’d love to hear your thoughts!

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We All Go a Little Mad Sometimes: Examining Evil, Psychosis, and Human Error in Psycho and Other Films

39 thoughts on “We All Go a Little Mad Sometimes: Examining Evil, Psychosis, and Human Error in Psycho and Other Films

  1. Phil Z says:

    I would also encourage you to read the novel by Robert Block, which was the inspiration for the movie. You will find that Norman Bates is quite different than the movie version. Nicely done!

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  2. I would actually have to disagree with you on the fact that the Joker as portrayed by Heath Ledger is evil. While he employs many objective evils to achieve his means, he says many times that he is essentially privy to the truth about humanity and wants to enlighten Batman and the rest of the world. He even claims that he is “not a monster” but is simply “ahead of the curve” of humanity’s development. In my opinion, the Joker is clearly chaotic and (hopefully) wrong about humanity, but, due to his motivations, is not truly evil.

    P.S. I am one of Mr. Miller’s students, not just a random guy.

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  3. will gottesman says:

    I would say that true evil is non-existent, unlike love which is a feeling, a emotion, and reality, evil is just another word for a feeling such as pride, or greed. Evil in my opinion is not something that someone or something can be, how ever someone or something can posses evil attributes, nothing can be defined as simply evil. Saying that evil is a thing puts the idea into the matrix that it is something that can be eliminated from this world, which gives humanity the wrong impression on what evil is. Since it is a feeling carried through with a act it is not something that can be gotten rid of, rather it is something that can be chosen to not express. On the topic of the joker from The Dark Knight, i agree with Matthew that the joker had a reason for his actions, although, his life was centered around the feeling of causing evil, which leads me to state that he is a perfect representation of evil, since his mind was taken over by the idea of causing harm.

    -another student of Mr. Miller

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I really find the idea that pure evil doesn’t exist, but rather is a name for something that other actions and negative feelings can carry, very intriguing. This could help explain why efforts to combat evil in our world always seems to fail, because they would be trying to combat what is essentially the wrong thing.

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  4. Mary Ingaldi says:

    I agree with Eagleton’s definition of evil because it makes a valid point that evil is without motive and that when presented with a motive or cause a seemingly evil act can be twistingly described as a reaction to a life event and that the effect of that reaction goes terribly awry and deeply hurts others and ourselves. My own definition of evil is purposely hurting others, ourselves, and nature with full knowledge without a cause or just because you want to see what happens.

    Also, I am another one of Mr. Miller’s students.

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  5. Name (not required) says:

    I’m intrigued by Terry Eagleton’s definition of evil. At first glance I would agree, but after further evaluation I don’t. Can evil really be put into one category? If a man feels that he has to kill a family because it’s his “calling” is he not evil because he has an end in mind? It still doesn’t change the fact that the man is bound to burn in the depths of hell for eternity. So therefor, although I understand where he’s coming from, I have to disagree with Eagleton.

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  6. Olivia Newport says:

    I think that our culture is so fascinated with horror films and evil villains because it is so obviously unacceptable for the average member of society to do these things. We like it because we can’t to do it, so it’s fun to see fake characters do what we are unable to morally do. I think we are attracted to the darkness because it is (hopefully) lacking in our own lives, but we like it because there is sadly some darkness in all of us.

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  7. Olivia Newport says:

    I think that we are so drawn to the horror genre and evil villains as a culture because in them we see things that are totally unacceptable for a functioning person of society to ever do. It is fun to see these characters commit acts that we could never “dream” of doing. I think we are attracted to the darkness because it is (hopefully) lacking in our own lives, but there is a little darkness in all of us.
    -Mr. Miller’s student

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  8. AC says:

    I agree with Olivia’s comment. I believe that many people are interested and pulled into such things that are different than our own lives. This doesn’t really apply with just evil and darkness, but much more. People are drawn to other things that in ways are the opposite of reality. Thus, if somebody is interested in horror and evil, it doesn’t necessarily mean that they are evil and a dark person, but yet simply interested. Everybody is interested in different and sometimes strange things but that is in the end what makes us who we are.
    -student

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  9. L.B. says:

    I think as a culture what attracts us to the darkness in horror movies is that sometimes it is interesting to watch. You always yell when the girl opens the door or answers the phone and wonder why she is so oblivious to the fact the killer is behind it. You laugh sometimes at one point because there is always a need for comic relief that I think relaxes the audience for a moment before the horror comes back. In almost every horror movie there is usually something that makes us laugh that maybe we weren’t supposed to laugh at. The horror movie business is interesting to watch because there are twists and turns and you’re never expecting the next scene. You get terrified at some points but also you laugh at some too that aren’t meant to be funny, and it shows that we are all interested to see if the guy dies and if the killer comes back to life or that chainsaw scene was funny. The darkness is something that entertains us because it keeps our attention to the plot and the killer and it’s kind of like a roller coaster throughout the movie and we want to know what can happen next.

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  10. Abbie Harrington says:

    I agree with Eagleton’s definition of evil because we are all in essence sinful by nature so it’s not enough to just say one is evil based on malicious or harmful acts because we already commit those sins in varying degrees due to original sin. So it is brilliant that Eagleton clarifies that one truly becomes evil when you have no end in mind or even intention behind those acts because his distinction is truly needed. My definition of evil has a more religious twist to it then Eagleton’s but falls closely to it. I think evil is performing any act which breaks your union with God or neighbor with no clear purpose.
    -Another student of Mr. Miller’s

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  11. Allison Higley says:

    We are attracted to the genre of horror because it is very romanticized in our culture. For example, Heath Ledger definitely romanticized the role of the Joker in the Dark Knight by giving him a sort of comical personality. If he was completely serious (why so serious?) throughout the entire film, would we love the movie as much as we do? No, because then it would be too real and therefore less entertaining. No one can perform the acts the Joker did without being a little twisted. The romanticism is derived from his twisted thought process which offers us a laugh. I am agreeing with your statement that the Joker is evil but if this were to happen in real life we would not be captivated by it because it can’t be romanticized like it is in the movies. We love horror when it’s fake but when it becomes real we run and hide from it. Maybe because we are human, maybe because culturally we are shallow. Who knows?

    — Mr. Miller’s Student

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  12. Ta'Laijah Quinn says:

    I think in our culture we’re attracted to the darkness in horror because it is a huge contrasts to normal everyday life. The darkness portrayed in horror films can be exhilarating, exciting, and fun because for an hour or two a person can revel in their deepest darkest thoughts. Our culture is attracted to the darkness because when we watch a horror film and we watch someone like the Joker cause havoc all over Gotham city, or sinister souls in Insidious taking over other humans we immediately think like, “Why are they doing this?” Or “Why do they act the way they do?” “Is it fun?” We give ourselves the opprtunity to crawl inside darkness’s mind and to understand the actions the darkness is making. Even for those who aren’t exactly fans of horror films can’t help but try to watch through the cracks of their fingers or turn their head back towards the tv because it’s impossible to not know what’s going to happen next, why the killer or dark entity is going to kill that certain person and truly what is the essential point or end game for darkness in horror films? All in all the darkness in horror films is attracting because we all get to experience the dark side of life, and it’s exciting.

    -Mr. Miller’s student

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  13. Cate Klein says:

    I think that our culture is so drawn to watching the horror genre because we never expect it to actually happen. Like Allison said it is fake stuff and if most things were to actually happen there is no guaranteeing how we would react. We find it exciting to watch these things happen knowing that it wouldn’t really happen in our society. It seems like in scary movies there are always ironic things that happen and make the “evil” aspect not quite as bad. For example, the Joker was kind of psychotic but in a “comical” kind of way. He told many stories to relate to different situations and asks “Why so serious?” We enjoy the laugh to go along with the scare because without it most of us propbably couldn’t handle it. However, it doesn’t happen in every scary movie and that can also be what brings more attention. Without anything ironic or something to make you laugh there is that thrill factor that makes you jump or cover your face. That thrill factor seems to be something that we enjoy some people like to be scared while some without the little laugh just can’t handle it. Who really knows why we love horror so much? It could be the irony, it could be the thrill, maybe I’m not even in the right ballpark.
    -Mr. Miller’s Student

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  14. Courtlynn says:

    I do think that the joker is a pretty darn bad dude, but I dunno if he’s 100% evil. I see him more as the embodiment of the worst of humanity. Since humanity isn’t inherently evil, the joker can’t be inherently evil. He just has some SERIOUS mental issues tho, I mean nobody in their right mind would cut up their face and dress like a clown. And with those mental illnesses (plural, he probably has a few) comes the question- is he responsible for his actions? The American judicial system doesn’t seem to thinks so, which is why he’s always sent to arkham asylum, but I dunno.

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  15. Nick Woll says:

    I feel like Ealgeton’s definition of evil does depict evil in a way that people can understand very easily. Being evil is putting malicious thoughts into action without needing a personal motive or reasoning. Most characters that we see as evil in movies, television shows, etc. normally always have an interior motive for something more. One example, to stick with the Batman theme, can come from the show Gotham and how the Penguin wants his mother and will do anything to get to her. When she is killed however, he becomes vengeful and acts severely upon that. Heath Ledger’s depiction of the Joker has no motivation for his actions, but he still tries to break Batman and show him that life is not all rainbows and cupcakes in the process. The difference between these two villains is that the Penguin has a motive while the Joker does not. The Joker finds one thing he can do with his actions, but that was not his original intention. This makes one evil while one, to put him simply, confused and hurt.
    -Miller Student

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  16. Molly M. says:

    I really agree with Terry Eagleton’s definition of evil because it’s possible for people to do evil things without being evil themselves – to be evil is not to commit these malicious, harmful acts but rather to have no motivation or cause for these acts. This is why the Joker is such a prime example of evil: he refers to himself as an agent of chaos and other characters observe that he just wants to watch the world burn. The Joker lacks any sufficient villain’s backstory that would serve as a cause for his heinous acts. I would disagree with Eagleton on one point, however. A quote often attributed to Aristotle states “we are what we repeatedly do.” If a person continues to commit evil acts, evil can consume them and become a part of them, no matter if they’re doing it for a cause or not.
    (student of Mr. Miller’s)

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  17. Adaven36 says:

    Horror attracts human just because. There was actually an experiment done where people were put in a room and were told not to press a button. As you could guess the people pressed the button anyway. When the button was pressed the sounds of electricity and someone screaming and yelling happened. Those people were shocked but pressed the button again. It was a simulation making them think they were doing the noises but really it was just layered sounds. In our world today we like to watch horror films to get a thrill. Especially the adrenaline junkies like the feeling of being scarred. The idea of watching a scary movie and knowing it’s a movie makes it more able to be watched because we know it’s a movie. We also can encounter and watch it happen to others and maybe it will show us what to and not to do if we are ever in that kind of situation.

    – Mr. Miller’s pupil

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  18. Joseph Scrimenti says:

    The constant need for excessive stimulation and the want for a life more exhilarating than our own are the reasons for the seemingly irresistible nature of horror in today’s society. I suppose, biologically, though, the reason for the attraction is the release of dopamine and adrenaline that horror movies often inflict. Subconsciously we all desire to break out of our shells and do something that makes an impact on people, whether good or bad. Another contributing factor is our attraction to evil. Evil has no bounds and it involves no worries, only recklessness. We crave this as a result of our high-pressure, always pressing lifestyles.

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  19. Nick Kisiel says:

    I agree with the Insidious paragraph. One of the “evil” spirits we see throughout the movie is the “Bride in Black” or Parker Crane as introduced through his back story. He isn’t exactly evil he just wants another chance to live. His life was taken from him by his mom because his mom wanted him to be a woman so bad. His childhood was taken from him and all he wanted was a second chance to live. I feel that if most of us, which I hope this didn’t happen, had to go through what he did, we would be very unhappy in the after life and would crave another chance at life. The spirits are portrayed as evil but I don’t believe that they are. I would say their intentions and means of achieving their attentions aren’t necessarily good but they aren’t true evil spirits, they just want another chance at what was taken from them.

    – A student of Mr. Miller

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  20. Alyssa Ortiz says:

    I think our culture is so attracted to evil because it’s something everyone knows they can not do on a daily basis. It’s something you don’t see everyday. When people watch horror films, it gives them the chance to bring out their dark side. Which they can’t do on the regular without something encouraging them. I think the horror films encourage people to do something that is evil because they think it’s cool and fun. They see the film and think to theirselves oh that’s looks cool I should try it. A lot of of people think of darkness as being cool, exciting and fun. That is why our culture is attracted to evil.

    – Mr. Millers student

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  21. Eva says:

    In TV and films today I do believe that Heath Ledger’s Joker in The Dark Knight is the best embodiment of evil that we have today. He does these heinous acts and murders a lot of people (these people mostly being other bad guys though). Don’t get me wrong the murder of any person is wrong but if we are trying to conjure up an image of true evil wouldn’t that person solely target the weak and truly innocent (like mentally handicapped people and children)? The Joker portrayed in the film also gives off a witty sarcastic vibe, which at least gives us an inch to connect with. Such a truly evil character would have no emotions or wit to him. Do I think that the Joker is the most evil character as of today? Yes. Do I think that he will be topped? Most certainly.

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  22. TJ says:

    To make comment upon the paragraph in which the film “Insidious” is mentioned, it is important to understand the textbook definition of the word. The word “insidious” can be defined as “proceeding in a gradual, subtle way, but with harmful effects.” As viewers of the movie, we see that the levels of which the spirits pursue earthy bodies varies, being that some are more haste in their endeavors. Some spirits, though, lack qualification to the textbook definition in the fact that they did not have harmful effects upon the protagonist and his family throughout the novel. Other spirits on the other hand very blatantly pursued an earthy vessel with harmful means, therefore fitting the textbook definition of insidious, and in turn could be considered “evil.” When evaluating the actions of virtually any conscious being, it is important to note the motives to make an accurate judgement. So, in the case of the spirits involved in the film “Insidious,” some most definitely could be considered evil because of their motives and slow progress into harmful means of contact, but others lack anything that would actually qualify them as evil; simply spirits seeking a vessel.

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  23. Sarah Emerson says:

    Our society’s attraction/fascination with evil in all of its various forms draws many questions, the most important of which being – Why? Why is that going to the movies and seeing the newest horror film on the weekend is a way that many people rather enjoy spending there time? Now don’t get me wrong, I enjoy partaking in these films as much as the next guy but I think if we are to indulge in such a dark aspect it’s important to reflect at times on what exactly draws us in. I think a large part of this attraction comes from the human desire to succeed. As a generalization, people are afraid to fail, afraid to face the fact that we live in a really messed up and imperfect world. As people trying to live and thrive in such an intimidating – and at sometimes scary – place, we relate much better (whether it be subconscious or not) to the underdog, or the thing (or person) that doesn’t do everything exactly the way perfection sees fit. While this morally may be invalid or unreasonable, I feel this is what is to be true. As a constant broken people searching for a means to be healed, we ironically have a fear of perfection – which could derive from the fact that perfection is unattainable. This in turn helps to explain why it is that many people find some form a relation between evil in our society today and their inner being, because whether we like to admit it or not there is a little bit of darkness in us all.

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  24. I know that I am late to their conversation but I would love to share my opinion on the joker. Firstly I’d like to say that this was a well written post and analysis of Hitchcock’s Psycho. Back on the subject : on Ledger’s Joker though. At the surface he is a character who seemingly enjoys pure chaos. But with a little more analysis its understood that the Joker does what he does to expose the harsh reality that everyone has darkness/evil embedded within them. And its shown that this his aim from the smallest actions to the film’s climax. A small example would be when he pits to gang members against each other to a battle to the death (not a big deal-we know he is crazy). A bigger example is when he pits an innocent group of civilians and criminals against each other; each group has the ability to blow up they other’s boat. Its surprising that the innocent people turn out to be the people who want to kill and not the criminals who through the detonation device out the window. Again he turns Gotham’s White Knight, Harvey Dent, into a Dark Knight after killing Rachel. Harvey was a good man who the Joker quickly turned into a man as crazy as him. Harvey lived as a White Knight and died with darkness enveloping him (we see that visually when his burnt face is the last side of him we see).

    Thanks for the read though! Made me really think and I am looking forward to reading both your future and past posts.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. The Joker is such an interesting topic. On the one hand, he has an end in mind, or a reason for his evil doings, so by Eagleton’s definition he isn’t truly evil. On the other hand, his goal, according to you, is to validate and perpetuate a dark view of humanity that will only lead to more darkness – which is also evil, I think. I forget if this is brought up in the comments, but Hitler had an “end” in mind during the Holocaust, but few would deny his actions are evil. So I’d totally agree – he has an end in mind. But I still think he’s evil.

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      1. Yeah the Joker in Nolan’s Dark Knight is extremely layered which I loved. His true motives are never discernable and really ambiguous which results in great discussions like this. This post has really shifted my understanding of what villainy is.

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    2. I think you do a fantastic job of outlining the Joker’s motives. I believe the point you’re making then is that he isn’t mentally ill so much as actually evil, correct? I agree with that take completely – especially Nolan’s vision as portrayed by Heath Ledger. I love, love, love the moment in the film where Gambol accuses the Joker of being crazy and he replies slowly and seriously, “No…I’m not.” You see it so clearly in his eyes, he knows who he is and what he’s doing…even if no one else gets it. So, as you and Kalie are outlining, that clearly puts him firmly in the “evil” category.

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  25. […] I am hard pressed to remember a recent movie as disturbing as The Cure For Wellness.  It was masterfully crafted but messed up.  Happy memories are a must for what that film leaves you mulling over.  Of course, for continuity sake, we have to conjure our own patronus for The Woman In Black right?  I mean, I kept expecting Harry Daniel Radcliffe to do that in the actual movie.  So the least I could do is conjure one in my mind to help keep the fear away.  Other good fits for this one include The Ring, The Disappointments Room, The Witch, or even classics like Psycho. […]

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